Suppose you like someone,then first what you need is to communicate with him/her.And for communicating you will require a medium to talk,and the best method to communicate with them will be a language,similarly Computers also need a medium to understand our instructions and perform the required actions,that medium is known as programming language .
Using programming language we can ask system to perform any desired task like you can give commands for playing music,videos or games,calculate,etc
Unfortunately, the language a computer system can understand is electrical language,i.e. system you are using currently using is understanding and working purely on electrical signals,but for humans its impossible to understand that language.Now to solve this problem developers had made a human readable and understandable language so using that they can communicate with the commuter system.
We have classified computer language into three parts on the basis of level of difficulty:
As you can see in the above figure Programming Language is categorized in three forms:
Low Level Language
Middle Level Language
High Level Language
Low Level Language (LLL)
Low Level Language is nearest to the computer hardware,it is also known as Assembly Language or machine code .Commands or functions in low level language map closely to processor instructions. The word “low” refers to the nonexistent amount of abstraction between the language and machine language; because of this, low-level languages are sometimes described as being “close to the hardware“. Programs written in low-level languages are always non-portable because there are always different codes for different hardware depending upon there Architecture.
Low-level languages do not need a compiler or interpreter, second–generation programming languages use a simpler processor called an assembler— and the resulting code runs directly on the processor. A program written in a low-level language can be made to run very quickly, with a small memory footprint. An equivalent program in a high-level language can be less efficient and use more memory and also take more time to run. Low-level languages are simple, but considered difficult to use, due to numerous technical details that the programmer must remember.
Middle Level Language
Middle-level language actually bind the gap between a machine level language and high-level languages. User can use middle level language to do System Programming (for writing operating system) as well as Application Programming (for generate menu driven customer billing system ). That’s why it is middle level language.
Example– C, FORTH, Macro-assemble
High Level Language (HLL)
High Level Language is easy to learn,program,debug and test.It is also nearest to human beings as the HLL is made with a mindset to ease the programming.Generally HLL programs are platform independent i.e. the program running on windows can also be run on mac.
HLL use natural language elements, that are easier to use, or may automate (or even hide entirely) significant areas of computing systems (e.g. memory management), making the process of developing a program simpler and more understandable than before in the history of computers. The amount of ease of the language defines how “high-level” a programming language is.
The first high-level programming language designed for computers was Plankalkül, created by Konrad Zuse.
Example- Java,python,dot net,etc