What is Java?

Java is a programming language and a platform.

Java is a high level, robust, object-oriented and secure programming language.

Platform: Any hardware or software environment in which a program runs, is known as a platform. Since Java has a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) and API, it is called a platform

                       

               Hello world! example

  1. class Simple    {  
  2.     public static void main(String args[])     {  
  3.      System.out.println(“Hello World”);  
  4.     }  
  5. }  

According to Sun, 3 billion devices run Java. There are many devices where Java is currently used. Some of them are as follows:

  1. Desktop Applications such as acrobat reader, media player, antivirus, etc.
  2. Web Applications such as irctc.co.in, letuslearn.in, etc.
  3. Enterprise Applications such as banking applications.
  4. Mobile
  5. Embedded System
  6. Smart Card
  7. Robotics
  8. Games, etc.

Types of Java Applications

There are mainly 4 types of applications that can be created using Java programming:

1) Standalone Application

Standalone applications are also known as desktop applications or window-based applications. These are traditional software that we need to install on every machine. Examples of standalone application are Media player, antivirus, etc. AWT and Swing are used in Java for creating standalone applications.

2) Web Application

An application that runs on the server side and creates a dynamic page is called a web application. Currently, ServletJSPStrutsSpringHibernateJSF, etc. technologies are used for creating web applications in Java.

3) Enterprise Application

An application that is distributed in nature, such as banking applications, etc. is called enterprise application. It has advantages of the high-level security, load balancing, and clustering. In Java, EJB is used for creating enterprise applications.

4) Mobile Application

An application which is created for mobile devices is called a mobile application. Currently, Android and Java ME are used for creating mobile applications.


 

Java Platforms / Editions

There are 4 platforms or editions of Java:

1) Java SE (Java Standard Edition)

It is a Java programming platform. It includes Java programming APIs such as java.lang, java.io, java.net, java.util, java.sql, java.math etc. It includes core topics like OOPs, String, Regex, Exception, Inner classes, Multithreading, I/O Stream, Networking, AWT, Swing, Reflection, Collection, etc.

2) Java EE (Java Enterprise Edition)

It is an enterprise platform which is mainly used to develop web and enterprise applications. It is built on the top of the Java SE platform. It includes topics like Servlet, JSP, Web Services, EJB, JPA, etc.

3) Java ME (Java Micro Edition)

It is a micro platform which is mainly used to develop mobile applications.

4) JavaFX

It is used to develop rich internet applications. It uses a light-weight user interface API.


History of Java

oak(java)
oak(java)

The history of Java is very interesting. Java was originally designed for interactive television, but it was too advanced technology for the digital cable television industry at the time. The history of java starts from Green Team. Java team members (also known as Green Team), initiated this project to develop a language for digital devices such as set-top boxes, televisions etc. But, it was suited for internet programming. Later, Java technology was incorporated by Netscape.

The principles for creating Java programming were “Simple, Robust, Portable, Platform-independent, Secured, High Performance, Multithreaded, Architecture Neutral, Object-Oriented, Interpreted and Dynamic”.

Currently, Java is used in internet programming, mobile devices, games, e-business solutions etc. There are given the major points that describes the history of java.

1) James GoslingMike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton initiated the Java language project in June 1991. The small team of sun engineers called Green Team.

java founder
java founder

2) Originally designed for small, embedded systems in electronic appliances like set-top boxes.

3) Firstly, it was called “Greentalk” by James Gosling and file extension was .gt.

4) After that, it was called Oak and was developed as a part of the Green project.

Why Java named as “Oak”

5) Why Oak? Oak is a symbol of strength and choosen as a national tree of many countries like U.S.A., France, Germany, Romania etc.

6) In 1995, Oak was renamed as “Java” because it was already a trademark by Oak Technologies.

Why Java Programming named as “Java”

7) Why had they choosen java name for java language? The team gathered to choose a new name. The suggested words were “dynamic”, “revolutionary”, “Silk”, “jolt”, “DNA” etc. They wanted something that reflected the essence of the technology: revolutionary, dynamic, lively, cool, unique, and easy to spell and fun to say.

According to James Gosling “Java was one of the top choices along with Silk“. Since java was so unique, most of the team members preferred java.

8) Java is an island of Indonesia where first coffee was produced (called java coffee).

9) Notice that Java is just a name not an acronym.

10) Originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which is now a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995.

11) In 1995, Time magazine called Java one of the Ten Best Products of 1995.

12) JDK 1.0 released in(January 23, 1996).


Java Version History

There are many java versions that has been released. Current stable release of Java is Java SE 10.

  1. JDK Alpha and Beta (1995)
  2. JDK 1.0 (23rd Jan, 1996)
  3. JDK 1.1 (19th Feb, 1997)
  4. J2SE 1.2 (8th Dec, 1998)
  5. J2SE 1.3 (8th May, 2000)
  6. J2SE 1.4 (6th Feb, 2002)
  7. J2SE 5.0 (30th Sep, 2004)
  8. Java SE 6 (11th Dec, 2006)
  9. Java SE 7 (28th July, 2011)
  10. Java SE 8 (18th March, 2014)
  11. Java SE 9 (21st Sep, 2017)
  12. Java SE 10 (20th March, 2018)
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