CSS Margins

CSS Margins

 

 

The CSS margin properties are used to create space around elements, outside of any defined borders.

With CSS, you have full control over the margins. There are properties for setting the margin for each side of an element (top, right, bottom, and left).

Margin – Individual Sides

CSS has properties for specifying the margin for each side of an element:

  • margin-top
  • margin-right
  • margin-bottom
  • margin-left

All the margin properties can have the following values:

  • auto – the browser calculates the margin
  • length – specifies a margin in px, pt, cm, etc.
  • % – specifies a margin in % of the width of the containing element
  • inherit – specifies that the margin should be inherited from the parent element

Tip: Negative values are allowed.

 

{
  margin-top: 100px;
  margin-bottom: 100px;
  margin-right: 150px;
  margin-left: 80px;
}

<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<style>

div {

  border: 1px solid black;

  margin-top: 100px;

  margin-bottom: 100px;

  margin-right: 150px;

  margin-left: 80px;

  background-color: lightblue;

}

</style>

</head>

<body>

 

<h2>Using individual margin properties</h2>

 

<div>This div element has a top margin of 100px, a right margin of 150px, a bottom margin of 100px, and a left margin of 80px.</div>

 

</body>

</html>

 

Using individual margin properties

This div element has a top margin of 100px, a right margin of 150px, a bottom margin of 100px, and a left margin of 80px.

Margin – Shorthand Property

To shorten the code, it is possible to specify all the margin properties in one property.

The margin property is a shorthand property for the following individual margin properties:

  • margin-top
  • margin-right
  • margin-bottom
  • margin-left

So, here is how it works:

If the margin property has four values:

  • margin: 25px 50px 75px 100px;
    • top margin is 25px
    • right margin is 50px
    • bottom margin is 75px
    • left margin is 100px
Use the margin shorthand property with four values:

{
  margin: 25px 50px 75px 100px;
}

<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<style>

div {

  border: 1px solid black;

  margin: 25px 50px 75px 100px;

  background-color: lightblue;

}

</style>

</head>

<body>

 

<h2>The margin shorthand property – 4 values</h2>

 

<div>This div element has a top margin of 25px, a right margin of 50px, a bottom margin of 75px, and a left margin of 100px.</div>

 

<hr>

 

</body>

</html>

 

The margin shorthand property – 4 values

This div element has a top margin of 25px, a right margin of 50px, a bottom margin of 75px, and a left margin of 100px.

If the margin property has three values:

  • margin: 25px 50px 75px;
    • top margin is 25px
    • right and left margins are 50px
    • bottom margin is 75px
Use the margin shorthand property with three values:

{
  margin: 25px 50px 75px;
}

<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<style>

div {

  border: 1px solid black;

  margin: 25px 50px 75px;

  background-color: lightblue;

}

</style>

</head>

<body>

 

<h2>The margin shorthand property – 3 values</h2>

 

<div>This div element has a top margin of 25px, a right and left margin of 50px, and a bottom margin of 75px.</div>

 

<hr>

 

</body>

</html>

 

The margin shorthand property – 3 values

This div element has a top margin of 25px, a right and left margin of 50px, and a bottom margin of 75px.

If the margin property has two values:

  • margin: 25px 50px;
    • top and bottom margins are 25px
    • right and left margins are 50px
Use the margin shorthand property with two values: 

{
  margin: 25px 50px;
}

<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<style>

div {

  border: 1px solid black;

  margin: 25px 50px;

  background-color: lightblue;

}

</style>

</head>

<body>

 

<h2>The margin shorthand property – 2 values</h2>

 

<div>This div element has a top and bottom margin of 25px, and a right and left margin of 50px.</div>

 

<hr>

 

</body>

</html>

 

The margin shorthand property – 2 values

This div element has a top and bottom margin of 25px, and a right and left margin of 50px.

If the margin property has one value:

  • margin: 25px;
    • all four margins are 25px
Use the margin shorthand property with one value:

{
  margin: 25px;
}

<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<style>

div {

  border: 1px solid black;

  margin: 25px;

  background-color: lightblue;

}

</style>

</head>

<body>


<h2>The margin shorthand property – 1 value</h2>


<div>This div element has a top, bottom, left, and right margin of 25px.</div>


<hr>


</body>

</html>


The margin shorthand property – 1 value

This div element has a top, bottom, left, and right margin of 25px.

The auto Value

You can set the margin property to auto to horizontally center the element within its container.

The element will then take up the specified width, and the remaining space will be split equally between the left and right margins.

Use margin: auto:

div {
  width: 300px;
  margin: auto;
  border: 1px solid red;
}

<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<style>

div {

  width:300px;

  margin: auto;

  border: 1px solid red;

}

</style>

</head>

<body>

 

<h2>Use of margin:auto</h2>

<p>You can set the margin property to auto to horizontally center the element within its container. The element will then take up the specified width, and the remaining space will be split equally between the left and right margins:</p>

 

<div>

This div will be horizontally centered because it has margin: auto;

</div>

 

</body>

</html>

 

Use of margin:auto

You can set the margin property to auto to horizontally center the element within its container. The element will then take up the specified width, and the remaining space will be split equally between the left and right margins:

This div will be horizontally centered because it has margin: auto;

The inherit Value

This example lets the left margin of the <p class=”ex1″> element be inherited from the parent element (<div>):

div {
  border: 1px solid red;
  margin-left: 100px;
}

p.ex1 {
  margin-left: inherit;
}

<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<style>

div {

  border: 1px solid red;

  margin-left: 100px;

}

 

p.ex1 {

  margin-left: inherit;

}

</style>

</head>

<body>

 

<h2>Use of the inherit value</h2>

<p>Let the left margin be inherited from the parent element:</p>

 

<div>

<p class=”ex1″>This paragraph has an inherited left margin (from the div element).</p>

</div>

 

</body>

</html>

 

Use of the inherit value

Let the left margin be inherited from the parent element:

This paragraph has an inherited left margin (from the div element).